Unfortunately, even in modern developed times there is a risk of infection with helminths. To be able to treat and prevent this phenomenon, it is necessary, at least, to be familiar with the main types of worms.
Types of worms
In medical sources, in which you can find the answer to the question of what types of worms a person has, they provide data on a large variety of varieties. Of course, some types are the most common. According to the classification, they can be divided into 3 main types. These are: roundworms and tapeworms, as well as fluxes.
The first on the list of types of worms in humans is to show roundworms. They are also known as nematodes. They got their name because of the structure of the body, because if you make a cross section of an individual, you can see the resulting roundness. Despite the fact that there are more than 20 thousand species of them in the world, only a few of them are usually found in humans.
The most common roundworms include:
- The round worm. These worms are quite large in size. They can reach a length of half a meter. The width varies from 4-5 cm. The color is usually pink, but in different cases it can be whiter or redder. These helminths are mainly located in the small intestine, but in rare cases they can also be in the bile ducts. Larvae at the same time easily move through the body, through the bloodstream. Their final stop is the lungs. It is here that there are the most comfortable conditions for their ripening, because this type of parasite belongs to anaerobes. When they become more stable, they move towards the intestines. Roundworms have a long lifespan, which can be 12-14 months. Outside the human body, these worms live in terrestrial conditions, where they lay several thousand eggs every day;
- Red worms. It is more often found in children, as the cause of the infection can be poorly washed hands or products. A little less often they enter the body with dust particles. Their size is much smaller than that of roundworms. Males reach 3 mm in length, and females - up to 13-14 mm. The color is completely white. Their preferred habitat is the initial part of the large intestine. The eggs are laid in the anus, closer to the anus. Their lifespan is also much shorter than that of roundworms and is only a few months.
- Trichinella. These modest-sized worms, which reach only 4 mm in length, most often enter the living human body as part of infected meat. Larvae live in muscle tissue, mainly in oculomotor and masticatory tissues, but adults prefer to be located in the intestines. Trichinella is a danger to humans, as without proper treatment it can be fatal.
Tapeworms are characterized by a flat body structure and a complete absence of a gastrointestinal tract. The length of individuals can reach several meters, due to which they look like a long ribbon. They prefer to live in the intestines or gastric channels. Among them are the following types:
- Bull bar. This is one of the largest varieties of tapeworms. The length of an individual can reach 15-20 meters. The worm clings to the surface of the small intestine and begins to absorb substances necessary for a person. Without proper diagnosis and treatment, he can live up to 10 years. Infection usually occurs by eating contaminated, undercooked meat;
- Dwarf tape. It got its name because of its small size, which is 4-5 mm on average. You can become infected with such a tapeworm through poorly washed vegetables, even dirty hands;
- Wide ribbon. Another great view. Its length can be up to 10 meters, the width is usually greater than that of other worms. Larvae enter the body of infected fish and grow into an adult in only 3. 5 weeks. Lives mainly in the small intestine. Lifespan can reach tens of years;
- Echinococcus. Small worms, the length of which, as a rule, is not more than 5 mm. Infection occurs from infected animals: cats and dogs. This species differs in that individuals are not located in the intestines, but in the lungs or liver. They are dangerous because they can provoke the formation of cysts, which later require surgical removal.
These worms can be very harmful to the body, so the sooner they are discovered, the better.
Flukes, like tapeworms, are flat parasites due to the structure of their bodies. They are also called liver worms, because their main habitat is the liver and biliary tract. Their main types are:
- Fluke. Also known as cat fluke. It lives mainly in rivers and lakes, which means that it enters the human body along with infected fish that have undergone poor processing. Pets can act as carriers. Individuals are quite small and rarely reach 12-13 mm. Inside a person they can live in absolutely any organ;
- Chinese or Oriental Fluke. It is characterized by a transparent red shade of the body and small size, no more than 2. 5 cm. It should enter the human body, identical to the common flu. It can lay more than 3. 5 thousand eggs per day;
- Fasciola. This is a larger flatworm, its length can be 5-7 cm It is viable only in fresh water conditions. It dies in salty springs. A person can become infected with fasciola by drinking contaminated raw water, for example, while bathing, and also by eating plants. The risk is especially great if they are aquatic or wild species.
Liver fruits, although small in size, can be dangerous for humans. The patient, in addition to the standard symptoms, may also develop a fever.
The simplest organisms
The simplest organisms have existed on earth for millions of years. To date, science reads more than 14. 5 thousand species. Like other parasites, their preferred habitat is soil, water in reservoirs and of course the human body. They can remain for some time on the surface of vegetables and fruits, the use of which often causes infection.
In the vast majority of cases, when it comes to infecting a person with protozoa, Giardia is meant. Their vitality is to be envied. They withstand even the most unfavorable environmental conditions.
In their structure, they are distinguished by the presence of four pairs of flagella and a special disk that performs a suction function. Thanks to them, Giardia safely attaches to the inner surface of the intestines and begins to parasitize.
The fact that worms appeared in the human body can be understood by a large number of signs. But most of them are of a general nature, indicating the presence of an inflammatory process. This can confuse the patient, forcing him to look for the cause in other diseases.
So, the patient may notice in himself during this period:
- Fatigue, regret, weariness;
- Paleness of the skin;
- Dizziness and sometimes headache;
- Increased anxiety, nervousness. In children, marked aggression can be observed;
- Deterioration of sleep. Usually worried about insomnia;
- Pain in the joints, pulling sensation in the muscles;
- Increased salivation.
Fatigue is one of the signs of the presence of worms.
The following signs, reminiscent of an allergic reaction or disease of the gastrointestinal tract, can mislead the patient:
- Yellowing of the skin;
- Redness on the body;
- Bronchial asthma attacks;
- Stool disorders: constipation or diarrhea;
- Feeling of nausea, as well as vomiting;
- Pain in the abdomen and hypochondrium;
- Slightly elevated body temperature.
But the most typical symptoms for this situation, due to which people often begin to suspect that they have parasites, are:
- Weight loss for no apparent reason. At the same time, it becomes very difficult to return lost kilograms;
- Itching in the anus;
- Bruxism. This phenomenon is expressed in teeth grinding during sleep.
Despite the fact that there are many signs of the presence of parasites in the body, sometimes this phenomenon is completely asymptomatic and therefore, people may not be aware of it for months.
To identify helminths in the body is not at all easy. The standard procedure in this case is to examine the feces for egg worms. I must say that sometimes to detect worms in feces, it may be necessary to do an analysis from 3 to 5 times.
How to identify certain types of worms, only a doctor knows. It is impossible to do this yourself without test results. Depending on the symptoms present, the doctor may prescribe the following examination procedures:
- Blood analysis. In this case, the number of indicators such as proteins and eosinophils is analyzed;
- Analysis of scratches from the anus;
- Analysis of vaginal itching.
Also, in some cases, additional measures may be required. Like:
- Examination of saliva;
- Study of the composition of urine and bile;
- CT scan;
- Ultrasound procedure.
Once the parasites have been identified, the doctor designs a treatment plan.
Self-treatment of parasites is not allowed. This is due to the following factors:
- Preparations contain a different active substance, which means that they have a harmful effect on different types of helminths;
- Some drugs are able to destroy only the larvae of worms, but not the adults;
- All medicines have some side effects.
In this regard, it is necessary to choose drugs based on the results of diagnostic procedures.
Preparations may have the following active ingredients:
- mebendazole. Affects only worms from the genus of pinworms;
- Diethylcarbamazine. Medicines based on it are prescribed if there are filaria in the patient's body;
- Levamisole. It has a wide spectrum of action. Destroys both worms and roundworms, as well as other worms;
- Hydroxyzanaphthoate befenia. Effectively fights roundworms;
- Albendazole. Necessary in the treatment of diseases caused by echinococci;
- Piperazine adipate. It is used to remove roundworms and pinworms from the body.
Traditional medicine also did not stand aside in this matter. It offers different ways that can not always completely cleanse the body of parasites, but, at least, are able to slow down their reproduction and development.
Examples of such methods are:
- Pumpkin seeds. They are taken in their pure form or based on them a decoction is made;
- Watermelon seeds. Apply it similarly to the pumpkin;
- Wormwood tincture;
- Tincture of alcohol and wormwood juice;
- Sand Immortal.
It is important to pay attention to the fact that before using folk methods, you must get approval from your doctor and, of course, rule out an allergic reaction to the ingredients used.
What are the dangerous worms for humans?
Worms don't just live in the human body, they literally parasitize, removing useful substances and also sucking blood. The body experiences a state of intoxication. The result of a long stay of helminths inside a person can be such negative consequences as:
- Weakening of the immune system;
- Violation of the gastrointestinal tract. Poor digestibility of food, appearance of ulcers;
- Development of allergies;
- the formation of cysts;
- Damage to the organs in which they live.
And don't forget that some types of parasites are very, very dangerous. Ignoring their presence can lead to the worst outcome.
The vast majority of people at least once in their lives faced with worms. Children are especially affected by this. And this is quite justified, in addition to the fact that they have weaker immunity compared to adults, they often ignore hygiene rules.
In general, the methods that help reduce the risk of infection are not complicated at all. They mean themselves:
- Compliance with the rules of personal hygiene. Hands should not be simply washed, but thoroughly washed with soap;
- Vegetables, fruits, berries should be washed with plenty of water;
- Any meat: cattle, poultry or fish, should be washed very well before cooking. Heat treatment must also be complete. It is not worth risking and cooking meat with blood if there is no confidence in its quality and safety;
- Periodic anthelmintic prophylaxis in children. It is best to do this in consultation with a doctor;
- Livestock and domestic animals are also subject to drug prophylaxis. At the same time, it makes no difference whether they live in the courtyard of a private house or in the room itself. If a dog or cat eats raw meat, then worm prevention must be carried out without fail.
Such procedures will help not to meet parasites for as long as possible.